The glazed tiles, murals or custom art to tell the story ...
(Tile glazed earthenware, hand painted by artisans, Frescos)
Frescoes Murals, Tile, symbol of portugal
From a material as simple as a glazed ceramic tile, glazed tiles - which in Arabic word originally meant "small stone" - is a legacy that Islamic culture has left the peoples of the Iberian Peninsula after the Reconquest and he became a successful Portugal artistic creation of the many murals that can be seen in this beautiful country example.
Throughout history and evolution of its manufacture of tiling leads us, step by step, to the knowledge of the evolution of society and the Portuguese culture.
It not only plays a utility role as a decorative element (Frescos) by its durability and ease of application but, above all, artistic expression, original affirmation of the Portuguese genius in the international context of the creation of innovation and renovation trends and imagination own artistic expression. It may very well be of tiling, murals as a vehicle for disclosure of Portuguese culture throughout the centuries.
The importance given by the Portuguese, these murals, this art is testified by the huge existing property from north to south of the country and around the world, former colonies in India to Brazil, via Africa, and for about five centuries.
It is this almost religious devotion to the art of tiling in Portugal that led to the creation of the Tile Museum in Lisbon. You can find the most beautiful mural paintings.
One of the most prestigious museums in the world of ceramics today, the Tile Museum in Lisbon also acts as a center of study of the architectural ceramics as a wall covering, shop in the conservation and restoration of murals, of tiling and also in the area of inventory and the history of ceramic art in Portugal.
The first tiles used in Portugal as a wall covering or murals were Islamic tradition. They were imported from Seville - the largest producer of tile center in the Iberian Peninsula at the time. The most representative of this period murals date from 1500 and are in the Hall of the Arabs and the Hall of Monkeys of the National Palace of Sintra, near Lisbon, is built by Manuel I, one of the great rulers of the Portuguese time Maritime Discoveries.
The reasons for these tiles, these murals are mainly laces and geometric sequences of Arabic influence where the green color of the lush vegetation outside predominates. Interestingly, the Arab influence is still felt today, not quite in the style of reasons, they, of course, have changed, but in excess of filling the spaces marked by opposition to the empty spaces.
In the sixteenth century, with the discovery of the art Italian majolica, which allowed to paint directly on glazed tiles, the murals, the patterns have evolved into more narrative figurative compositions that sometimes reached monumental proportions. This is particularly the case of tiles or murals of the Church of S. Roque, Lisbon, where the great master in painting and drawing Francisco de Matos (1584); or panels, murals known as Our Lady of Life - from the St. Andrew church that once existed in Lisbon - work Marcal de Matos, another great teacher.
The murals of this period and their decorative motifs were Mannerist or themes from classical antiquity disclosed by Italian potters who settled in Flanders. They arrived in Portugal through the first orders imported from Flanders and fairly quickly conquered the country. On the palate da Bacalhôa at Azeitão we can admire some of the best works of the early murals of Portuguese production of that era.
Examples of murals, Flemish and Iberian almost similar works are proof that both these reasons the Italian Renaissance style spread throughout Europe.
Towards the end of this century, however, with the political crisis that was experienced as a result of the dynastic crisis that rattled the country for 60 years (from 1580 to 1640 Portugal was ruled by the kings of Spain, the heirs of the Portuguese crown), decorative solutions, less demanding and more economical murals were sought.
This is the period motifs and murals to boss, with the effect of "checkerboard" or "échiquetés", normally with a border around it. We can admire some of the murals in the church of Marvila Santarem, or the church of Jesus in Setúbal, or to the church of San Roque in Lisbon. This trend will continue during the early VXIIème century. Oddly enough, however, this period of tiling Portugal is one of the richest visual effects.
The seventeenth century saw the arrival of the fantastic character ornaments and profane, recovered from ancient Rome. In Portugal, these patterns were transposed to religious and used in church decoration themes. They called these reasons, these murals "The Grotesque". Recovered from the former palace of the street back Corvos in Lisbon, the mural with heraldic composition which is in the Tile Museum is an example of this kind of pattern. Another pattern emerged in the figurative murals or front-d'autel - "The Indian". Inspired by India imported exotic fabrics, blended with Western and adapted to Catholic symbols themes, these patterns were used as ceramic, especially as a front-d'autel in churches.
This freedom of interpretation inevitably led to a diversity of figurative murals. This has led to a proliferation of workshops, where craftsmen - sometimes without academic training - could give vent to their interpretation of patterns and colors by creating multiple murals. Customer widens, the nobility became a major sponsor of the profane glazed tiles for decoration of palaces. For example, we can mention the palace of the Marquis of Fronteira in Lisbon, where there are classic themes mixed with satirical scenes, loaded with irony and folly, known under the term "Antics". Towards the last decades of the seventeenth century and for about 50 years until 1715, Portugal becomes a Flemish tiles importer. This is monumental blue tile murals, imitating Chinese porcelain, designed by the great painters of the Netherlands.
These imports have provoked a reaction from the Portuguese workshops then appealed to national painters for their murals with an academic training to meet and become a more demanding clientele. Faced with this new development of the manufacture of tiles and murals in Portugal, there is the abandonment of imports, and the painter of tiles, murals recovers its status as an artist, signing his works. The forerunner of this new period was the Spanish Gabriel Del Barco, remained in Portugal after the War of the Restoration. He introduced the taste of decorative exuberance and freed from the rigor of the design murals painting. This trend was continued by Portuguese artists of great talent who thus gave birth to the "cycle master".
The best known among these names were António Pereira, Manuel dos Santos, Antonio de Oliveira Bernardes and his son Policarpo de Oliveira Bernardes. Large orders of wall frescoes continued during the reign of João V
In 1755, a major earthquake destroyed Lisbon and surroundings. The Marquis of Pombal, Prime Minister José I, is the largest contractor of reconstruction of the city. The murals and the kind of glazed tiles used retrieve patterns boss, best suited to the urgency of the situation, and is known as azulejos "Pombalino", according to the minister. Examples of these murals can be found everywhere in Lisbon and also the Tile Museum. (first half of the eighteenth century), including orders for murals from the Portuguese territories in Brazil. Never before had there used both narrative panels, murals, and this increase in production for simplification of painting scenes by-position against the moldings that they have reached an unprecedented scenic importance.
You can find many pictures on the tiles and hand-painted murals and Portuguese on the Internet !!!